India-UK Water Quality



This page contains selected relevant resources, (co-)authored by members of the FAR-GANGA team (in bold).  Blue font indicates FAR-GANGA-specific outputs which acknowledge FAR-GANGA support.  Italics font indicate publications which are relevant but not specific outputs of FAR-GANGA.  Open access links are provided where available.  This page will be updated with project outputs as they are published (last update: Oct 2022).


Arsenic Biogeochemistry & Geochemical Tracers

Richards, Kumari, Parashar, Kumar, Lu, WIlson, Lapworth, Niasar, Ghosh, Chakravorty, Krause, Polya, Gooddy (2022). Environmental tracers and groundwater residence time indicators reveal controls of arsenic accumulation rates beneath a rapidly developing urban area in Patna, IndiaJournal of Contaminant Hydrology, 249: 104013. DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2022.104043 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)


Chakraborty, Mishra, Mukherjee (2022). Influence of hydrogeochemical reactions along flow paths on contrasting groundwater arsenic and manganese distribution and dynamics across the Ganges River.  Chemosphere, 287:2, 132144.  DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132144 (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Chakraborty, Mukherjee , Ahmed(2022). Regional-scale hydrogeochemical evolution across the arsenic-enriched transboundary aquifers of the Ganges River Delta system, India and Bangladesh.  Science of the Total Environment, 823: 153490.  DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153490 (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Kumar, Joshi, Pant, Singh, Chakravorty, Saini, Kumar, Singh, Ghosh, Mukherjee, Rai, Singh (2021). Hydrogeochemical evolution and groundwater recharge processes in arsenic enriched area in central Gangetic Plain, India.  Journal of Applied Geochemistry, 131: 105044.  DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2021.105044 (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Singh, Sharma, Raju, Chakravorty, Singh, Sharma (2022). Assessment of hydrogeochemistry and arsenic contamination in groundwater of Bahraich District, Uttar Pradesh, India.  Arabian Journal of Geosciences.  15:9.   DOI: 

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-09222-5 (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards, Kumar, Shankar, Gaurav, Ghosh, Polya (2020). Distribution and Geochemical Controls of Arsenic and Uranium in Groundwater-Derived Drinking Water in Bihar, India.  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17: 2500. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072500 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Singh, Kumar, Chakravorty, Singh, Raju (2020). Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Bijnor District, India using Water Quality Index.  Journal of Water Engineering and Management, 1(2): 52 - 60.  ISSN 2582 6298.  Available at: http://jweam.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Vol-1-Issue-2_52-60-1.pdf (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards, Kumar, Shankar, Gaurav, Ghosh, Polya (2020/2021).  Distribution of Arsenic and Uranium in Groundwater Utilized as Drinking Water in Bihar, India.  As2020 8th International Congress & Exhibition of Arsenic in the Environment, Wageningen, The Netherlands (conference originally scheduled for June 2020; postponed until 7 - 9 June 2021 & held virtually due to COVID-19) (KEYNOTE ABSTRACT)

Polya, Sparranbom, Datta, Guo (2019). Groundwater arsenic biogeochemistry - Key questions and use of tracers to understand arsenic-prone groundwater systems.  Geoscience Frontiers, 10 (5): 1635 - 1641.  DOI: 10.1016/j.gsf.2019.05.004 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards, Magnone, Sültenfuβ, Chambers, Bryant, Boyce, van Dongen, Ballentine, Sovann, Uhlemann, Kuras, Gooddy, Polya (2019). Dual In-Aquifer and Near Surface Processes Mobilize Hazardous Arsenic in Cambodian Groundwater, Science of the Total Environment, 659: 699 - 714.  DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.437 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards, Magnone, Sovann, Kong, Uhlemann, Kuras, van Dongen, Ballentine, Polya (2017). High resolution profile of inorganic aqueous geochemistry and key redox zones in an arsenic bearing aquifer in Cambodia, Science of the Total Environment, 590 – 591: 540-553. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.217 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Lawson, Polya, Boyce, Bryant, Mondal, Shantz, Ballentine (2013).  Pond-Derived Organic Carbon Driving Changes in Arsenic Hazard Found in Asian Groundwaters, Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (13), 7085 - 7094.  DOI: 10.1021/es400114q (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Islam, Gault, Boothman, Polya, Charnock, Chatterjee, Lloyd (2004) Role of metal-reducing bacteria in arsenic release from Bengal delta sediments, Nature, 430, 68-71.  DOI: 10.1038/nature0263 (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Arsenic Distribution

Mukherjee, Sarkar, Chakraborty, Duttagupta, Bhattacharya, Saha, Bhattacharya, Mitra, Gupta (2021). Occurrence, predictors and hazards of elevated groundwater arsenic across India through field observations and regional-scale AI-based modeling,  Science of the Total Environment, 759: 143511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143511 (FULL PUBLICATION)


Podgorski, Wu, Chakravorty, Polya (2020). Groundwater Arsenic Distribution in India by Machine Learning Geospatial Modeling,  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19): 7119 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17197119 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

DhamijaJoshi (2020). Vulnerability assessment of arsenic in groundwater and its occurrence in districts of Bihar, India.  Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Advances in Geospatial Technolgoy & Applications. IIRS Dehradun, India.  https://www.iirs.gov.in/iirs/sites/default/files/pdf/national-seminar/Proceedings_National_Seminar.pdf page 158.  (open access) (PROCEEDINGS)

Wu, Podgorski, Berg, Polya (2020),  Geostatistical model of the spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwaters in Gujarat State, India, Environmental Geochemistry and Health,   DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00655-7 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Arsenic Remediation

Richards, Parashar, Kumari, Kumar, Mondal, Ghosh, Polya (2022). Household and Community Systems for Groundwater Remediation in Bihar, India: Arsenic and Inorganic Contaminant Removal, Controls and Implications for Remediation Selection, Science of the Total Environment 154580.  DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154580 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Bhattacharya, Sahu, Telu, Duttagupta, Sarkar, Bhattacharya, Mukherjee, Ghosal (2021),  Neural Network and Random Forest-Based Analyses of the Performance of Community Drinking Water Arsenic Treatment Plants, Water, 13: 3507. DOI: 10.3390/w13243507  (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Ranjan, Yadav, Joshi (2021). Removal of arsenic (III and V) from aqueous solution using stable maghemite (γ -Fe2O3) loaded pumice composite.  International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.  DOI: 10.1007/s13762-021-03326-x (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)


Ranjan, Yadav, Joshi (2020),  Development of nZVI-Pumice / Zeolite Composites for Effective Removal of Arsenic (III) from Aqueous Solution.  Journal of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste, 24(3), 1 - 10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000507  (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Kumar, Joshi, Kumar (2020),  Remediation of Arsenic by Metal/ Metal Oxide Based Nanocomposites/Nanohybrids: Contamination Scenario in Groundwater, Practical Challenges, and Future Perspectives, Separation and Purification Reviews, DOI: 10.1080/15422119.2020.1744649  (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards, Parashar, Mondal, Ghosh, Pincetti Zuniga, Polya (2019). Implementation challenges to Effective Groundwater Remediation in Contrasting Arsenic-Impacted Areas. Asia Oceania Geochemical Society Abstract No. BG08-A012.  Presented at AOGS 2019, 28th  July – 2nd  August 2019, Singapore (not open access) (ABSTRACT) 

Richards, Kumari, GhoshJoshi, Mukherjee, Clayton, Reynolds, Polya (2019). Toolkit approach for the selection of sustainable arsenic remediation approaches for rural communities. Goldschmidt Abstracts 2824; Presented 18-23 August 2019, Barcelona (open access) (ABSTRACT)

Polya & Richards (2017). Arsenic and the Provision of Safe and Sustainable Drinking Water: Aspects of Innovation and Knowledge Transfer, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Asia Pacific Tech Monitor, July – September 2017 Issue: Innovation, technology transfer and management for safe and sustainable water, ISSN: 0256-9957.  (open access(FULL PUBLICATION)

Arsenic, Stakeholder Engagement and Community Science

Addison, Polya, Chakravorty, Chakraborty, Ambuehl, Podgorski, Kumar, Ghosh, Richards (2020).  Citizen science in schools and colleges in Patna, Bihar, India for groundwater contaminant mapping & knowledge transfer.  Goldschmidt Abstracts; Presented 25 June 2020 (Virtually due to COVID-19) (ABSTRACT)


Polya, Chakraborti, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Joshi, Mondal, Gooddy, Krause, Richards (2020/2021).  Poor economics and arsenic: the key role of end-user & science informed co-designed policy and action, stakeholder guidance, transparency and the proactively enhanced role of women for better interventions in India.  As2020 8th International Congress & Exhibition of Arsenic in the Environment, Wageningen, The Netherlands (conference originally scheduled for June 2020; postponed until 7 - 9 June 2021 & held virtually due to COVID-19) (KEYNOTE ABSTRACT)

Addison, Polya, Richards (2020/2021).  Utilizing citizen science to develop knowledge exchange and sampling-analysis schemes on geogenic arsenic in groundwater in Patna, India.  As2020 8th International Congress & Exhibition of Arsenic in the Environment, Wageningen, The Netherlands (conference originally scheduled for June 2020; postponed until 7 - 9 June 2021 & held virtually due to COVID-19) (ABSTRACT)

Polya, Chakravorty, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Joshi, Mondal, Gooddy, Krause, Richards (2020).  Guidance for Stakeholders in the Usage, Supply, Remediation, Regulation and Monitoring of Water Supplied from Arsenic Prone Aquifers in India.  International Conference on Water, Energy and Environmental Sustainability (WEES 2020) in association with RMIT University, Australia during 13 - 15 Jan 2020 at NIT Durgapur (ABSTRACT)


Das, Mukherjee, Lapworth, Das, Bhaumik, Layek, Shaw, Smith, Sengupta, MacDonald, Sen (2021) Quantifying the dynamics of sub-daily to seasonal hydrological interactions of Ganges river with groundwater in a densely populated city: Implications to vulnerability of drinking water sources.  Journal of Environmental Management 288: 112384.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112384 (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)


Lu, Richards, Wilson, Krause, Lapworth, Gooddy, Chakravorty, Polya, Niasar (2021). Impacts of groundwater abstractionon Ganges river water ingress into shallow aquifers under Patna, India: Sensitivity analysis.  Abstract ID 182.  Aqua360 (The University of Exeter), online, 31 Aug - 2 Sep 2021.  Session 19: India-UK Water Quality Programme (NERC-DST), Presented 2 Sep 2021.  (not open access) (ABSTRACT)

Chakraborty, Sarkar, Mukherjee, Shamsudduha, Ahmed, Bhattacharya, Mitra (2020) Modelling regional-scale groundwater arsenic hazard in the transboundary Ganges River Delta, India and Bangladesh: Infusing physically-based model with machine learning, Science of the Total Environment 748: 141107.  DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141107  (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Das & Mukherkee (2019) Depth-dependent groundwater response to coastal hydrodynamics in the tropical, Ganges river mega-delta front (the Sundarbans): Impact of hydraulic connectivity on drinking water vulnerability, Journal of Hydrology 575: 499 - 512.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.05.053  (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Mukherjee, Bhanja, Wada (2018) Groundwater depletion causing reduction of baseflow triggering Ganges river summer drying, Nature Scientific Reports (8): 12049 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30246-7 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Mukherjee, Verma, Gupta, Henke, Bhattacharya (2014).  Influence of techtonics, sedimentation and aqueous flow cycles on the origin of global groundwater arsenic, Journal of Hydrology, 518 (C): 284 - 299, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.10.044 (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Hyporheic Zone Interactions & Biogeochemistry

Lu, Richards, Wilson, Krause, Lapworth, Gooddy, Chakravorty, Polya, Niasar (2022). Quantifying the impacts of groundwater abstraction on Ganges river water infiltration into shallow aquifers under the rapidly developing city of Patna, India.  Journal of Hydrology Regional Studies, 42:101133. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2022.101133 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards, Khamis, KrauseKumar, Parashar, Chatterjee, SumanDas, Kumar, Mukherjee, Hannah, Gooddy, Polya. (2019) In-Situ Fluorescence Sensors for Monitoring Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter in Bihar, India.  Asia Oceania Geochemical Society Abstract No. HS13-A027.  Presented at AOGS 2019, 28th  July – 2nd  August 2019, Singapore (not open access) (ABSTRACT)

Krause, Tecklenberg, Munz, Naden (2013).  Streambed nitrogen cycling beyond the hyporheic zone: Flow controls on horizontal patterns and depth distribution of nitrate and dissolved oxygen in the upwelling groundwater of a lowland river, JGR Biogeosciences, 118 (1): 54 - 67, DOI: 10.1029/2012JG002122 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Urban Organics

Richards, Kumari, White, Parashar, Kumar, Ghosh, Kumar, Chakravorty, Lu, Civil, Lapworth, Krause, Polya, Gooddy (2021). Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater under a rapidly developing city (Patna) in northern India dominated by high concentrations of lifestyle chemicals.  Environmental Pollution, 268(A): 115765. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115765 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Wilson, Richards, Lu, Lapworth, Niasar, Krause, Gooddy, Polya (2021). Dissolved organic matter composition in shallow aquifers under Patna City, Bihar, India revealed by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.  Abstract ID 184.  Aqua360 (The University of Exeter), online, 31 Aug - 2 Sep 2021.  Session 19: India-UK Water Quality Programme (NERC-DST), Presented 2 Sep 2021.  (not open access) (ABSTRACT)

Lapworth, Das, Shaw, Mukherjee, Civil, Petersen, Gooddy, Wakefield, Finlayson, Krishan, Sengupta, MacDonald (2018),  Deep urban groundwater vulnerability in India revealed through the use of emerging organic contaminants and residence time tracers, Environmental Pollution, 240: 938 - 949.  DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.05 (not open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Arsenic and Health

Xu, Suman, Sharma, Kumar, Singh, Bose, Ghosh, Rahman, Polya, Mondal (2021).  Assessment of hypertension association with arsenic exposure from food and drinking water in Bihar, India.  Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 223, Art No 112572 .  DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112572  (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)


Krishan, Bhattacharya, Sudarsan, Polya, Vasisht (2021). Health risk assessment associated with arsenic in groundwater in the state of Punjab, India.  Paper No. 40-5.  GSA Connects 2021 in Portland, Oregon.  Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 53, No. 6.  10 Oct 2021.  Session T50: Arsenic, Fluoride and Other Geogenic Contaminants in Groundwater Basins: Linking Advances in Natural Sciences and Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Data Sceince for Long-Term Risk Prediction and Policy Interventions.  DOI: 10.1130/abs/2021AM-367603 (open access) (ABSTRACT)

Wu, R., Xu, L. and Polya, D.A. (2021) Groundwater arsenic-attributable cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risks in India. Water. 13(16), 2232.  DOI: 10.3390/w13162232 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)


Mondal, Rahman, Suman, Sharma, Siddique, Rahman, Bari, Kumar, Bose, Singh, Ghosh, Polya (2021).  Arsenic exposure from food exceeds that from drinking water in endemic area of Bihar, India, Science of the Total Environment 754: 142082.  DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142082  (FULL PUBLICATION)

Mondal, Ganguli, Roy, Halder, Banerjee, Banerjee, Samanta, Giri, Polya (2014). Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water, Water 6 (5):1100 - 1117.  DOI: 10.3390/w605110 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Banerjee, Banerjee, Bhattacharjee, Mondal, Lythgoe, Martinez, Pan, Polya, Giri (2013). High arsenic in rice is associated with elevated genotoxic effects in humans, Scientific Reports, 3:2194.

DOI: 10.1038/srep0219 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Mondal & Polya (2008). Rice is a major exposure route for arsenic in Chakdaha block, Nadia district, West Bengal, India: A probabilistic risk assessment.  Applied Geochemistry 23(11): 2987-2998. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2008.06.025 


Water and Health

Duttagupta, Bhanja, Dutta, Sarkar, Chakraborty, Ghosh, MondalMukherjee (2021).  Impact of Covid-19 Lockdown on Availability of Drinking Water in the Arsenic-Affected Ganges River Basin.  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18: 2832.  DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18062832  (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Duttagupta, Mukherjee, Bhanja, Chattopadhyay, Sarkar, Das, Chakraborty, Mondal (2020).  Achieving Sustainable Development Goal for Clean Water in India: Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors on Groundwater Microbial Pollution, Environmental Management (66): 742 - 755.  DOI: 10.1007/s00267-020-01358-69  (FULL PUBLICATION)

Mukherjee, Duttagupta, Chattopadhyay, Bhanja, Bhattacharya, Chakraborty, Sarkar, Ghosh, Bhattacharya, Sahu (2019). Impact of sanitation and socio-economy on groundwater fecal pollution and human health towards achieving sustainable development goals across India from ground-observations and satellite-derived nightlight, Scientific Reports, 9: 15193 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50875-w (open access) 


Surface Water: Ganga Basin

Richards, Fox, Bowes, Khamis, Kumar, Kumari, Kumar, Hazra, Howard, Thorn, Read, Nel, Schneidewind, Armstrong, Nicholls,  Magnone, Ghosh, Chakravorty, Joshi, Dutta, Hannah, Reynolds,  Krause, Gooddy, Polya (2022).  A systematic approach to understand hydrogeochemical dynamics in large river systems: Development and application to the River Ganges (Ganga) in India; Water Research 211: 118054.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118054 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Das, Mukherjee , Malakar, Das, Dey (2021). Impact of global-scale hydroclimatic patterns on surface water-groundwater interactions in the climatically vulnerable Ganges river delta of the Sundarbans.  Science of the Total Environment, 798: 149198.  DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149198 (not open access) (acknowledges DST funding only) (FULL PUBLICATION)

Richards and the Team SAPTANADI (2021).  Water Quality across the River Ganga Basin in India: Trends, Dominant Geochemical Processes and Impacts, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10642, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10642 (open access) (ABSTRACT)

Khamis and the Team SAPTANADI (2021). Using in-situ sensors to quantify spatial variability in nutrient concentrations across the Ganges river basin, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-11071, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-11071 , 2021 (open access) (ABSTRACT; note display materials acknowledge FAR-GANGA)

Krause and the Team SAPTANADI (2021): Taking the pulse of Mother Ganga - Revealing the visible and invisible water pollution crisis along the Ganges River, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10801, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10801 , 2021 (open access) (ABSTRACT; note display materials acknowledge FAR-GANGA)

Nel and the Team SAPTANADI (2021): Sediment and surface water microplastic contamination along the Ganges River, from the Himalayan foothills to the tidal reach downstream of Kolkata, India., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13000, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13000

(open access) (ABSTRACT; note display materials acknowledge FAR-GANGA)

Groundwater Sampling

Polya, Richards, Al Bualy, Sovann, Magnone, Lythgoe (2017). Chapter A14: Groundwater sampling, arsenic analysis and risk communication: Cambodia Case Study. In P. Bhattacharya, D.A. Polya, D. Jovanovic. (Eds.) Best Practice Guide for the Control of Arsenic in Drinking Water, IWA Publishing, ISBN13: 9781843393856 (open access) BOOK CHAPTER)

Polya & Watts (2017).  Chapter 5: Sampling and analysis for monitoring arsenic in drinking water. In P. Bhattacharya, D.A. Polya, D. Jovanovic. (Eds.) Best Practice Guide for the Control of Arsenic in Drinking Water, IWA Publishing, ISBN13: 9781843393856, (open access) (BOOK CHAPTER)

Richards, Magnone, van Dongen, Ballentine, Polya (2015).  Use of lithium tracers to quantify drilling fluid contamination for groundwater monitoring in Southeast Asia, Applied Geochemistry, 63: 190 - 202.  DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.08.013 (open access) (FULL PUBLICATION)